Cause and Effect (Adverbs) III

The rain may possibly cause flooding.

The rain will certainly cause flooding.

Perhaps the rain will cause flooding.

The rain will definitely cause flooding.

The rain will probably cause flooding.

The rain will undoubtedly cause flooding.

(Use of Adverbs can be filled with the use of Model verbs)

Cause and Effect (Model Verbs) II

The heavy rain may have caused the flooding.

The heavy rain could have caused the flooding.

The heavy rain might have caused the flooding.

Flooding can be caused by heavy rain.

(Remember when you make use of Model Verbs you should use the "Third form of the Verb" and you should add "Caused" with the complement)

Cause and Effect I

There was flooding because of the heavy rain.

The flooding was caused by the heavy rain.

The heavy rain was the cause of the flooding.

The heavy rain was the reason for the flooding.

The flooding was attributed to the heavy rain.

There was flooding on account of the heavy rain.

Owing to the heavy rain there was flooding.

(These cause-effect phrases are all followed by noun phrases; i.e. 'the heavy rain'.)


You can root for your team (cheer them on) and hope that they utterly smash their opponents (create a rout), then come back in triumph on Route 27 (a road).


If you want something you can request it or you can ask for it. Many people like "request" because it sounds more formal, more elegant; but to other people it just sounds pretentious. There are many instances in which plain old "ask" works better: "I'm asking my Students to go camping with me." "She asked him to walk the dog."
Except on wedding invitations(Here requesting means compeling), try to avoid "request" where "ask" will do.

Don't request them you ask them to attend...


A psychologist is a person who has studied the mind and earned a Ph.D.or Psy.D. Although some definitions state that psychologists have undergone clinical training but cannot prescribe medicines, there are research psychologists who are not engaged in clinical work at all, but merely do experiments to discover how our minds work. Some of their work can concern animal rather than human minds.

A psychiatrist is technically an M.D. specializing in the treatment of mental problems who can prescribe medicines. They are licensed medical doctors, and get irritated when they are called "psychologists" and when psychologists are called "psychiatrists."

Psychotherapist is not a technical term, and may be used by anyone claiming to offer therapy for mental problems. That someone is called a "psychotherapist" tells you nothing about his or her qualifications. But
qualified clinical psychologists and psychiatrists can be properly called "psychotherapists."

A psychoanalyst is a very specific kind of psychotherapist: a licensed practitioner of the methods of Sigmund Freud.


Some argue that "presently" doesn't mean "in the present." It means "soon." If you want to talk about something that's happening right now, they urge you to say it's going on currently.


Snakes and insects that inject poisonous venom into their victims are venomous, but a snake or tarantula is not itself poisonous because if you eat one it won't poison you. A blowfish will kill you if you eat it, so it is poisonous; but it is not venomous.


         Creator god. Dogon [Mali, West Africa]. He first created the sun by baking a clay pot until it was white hot and coiling a band of copper around it eight times. He created the moon in similar fashion but used brass. Black people were created from sunlight and white from moonlight. Later, having circumcised the earth goddess, whose clitoris was an anthill, he impregnated her and produced the first creature, a jackal. Next he fertilized her with rain to engender plant life and finally became the father of mankind.


"Behavior" has always referred to patterns of action, including multiple actions, and did not have a separate plural form until social scientists created it. Unless you are writing in psychology, sociology, anthropology, or a related field, it is better to avoid the use of "behaviors" in your writing.

The same can be used for Peoples also... "People" itself a plural form

ATM machine/ATM... What are you talking about?

"ATM" means "Automated Teller Machine," so if you say "ATM machine" you are really saying "Automated Teller Machine machine."


To "assure" a person of something is to make him or her confident of it. According to Associated Press style, to "ensure" that something happensis to make certain that it does, and to "insure" is to issue aninsurance policy. Other authorities, however, consider "ensure" and "insure" interchangeable. To please conservatives, make the distinction.

However, it is worth noting that in older usage these spellings were not clearly distinguished. European "life assurance" companies take the position that all policyholders are mortal and someone will definitely collect, thus assuring heirs of some income.

American companies tend to go with "insurance" for coverage of life as well as of fire, theft, etc.

And / Or

The legal phrase "and/or," indicating that you can either choose between two alternatives or choose both of  them, has proved irresistible inother contexts and is now widely acceptable though it irritates somereaders as jargon. However, you can logically use it only when you are discussing choices which may or may not both be done: "Bring chipsand/or beer." It's very much overused where simple "or" would do, and itwould be wrong to say, "you can get to the campus for this morning'smeeting on a bike and/or in a car." Choosing one eliminates the possibility of the other, so this isn't an and/or situation.