Spoken English Level - I

• Write some of the sentences with “to” before a verb



• Have to / Has to/ Had to, Use these be form of verb


• Use That is why , that is what, that is how, that is when, that is where, that is whom in different context


• Use this formula : If + Sub + Verb , Sub + will + verb & If + Sub + Had + Verb (past participle) , Sub + would have + verb (Past participle)


• Use Everybody , every one , someone, some body, everything, something, anybody, anyone, nobody, no one, nothing in different context


• Use this formula : Sub + find + it + easy / difficult + to + Verb


• Use this formula : It + take + time + for + Object (me, him) + to + verb


• Use whatever , wherever, however, when ever, who ever, which ever in different context.


• Use this formula : Sub + know / don’t know + “WH” question words + to + verb


• Use this formula : Sub + be verbs + too + Adj / Adv + to + verb


• Use this formula : Though + sub + be verb / main verb + obj / Adv / Adj , Sub + Verb


• As + Sub + verb / Be verb + Adj/ Adv , Sub + Verb + obj


• Very Important model : Wh Question + sub + verb + to / Adv + is , (Sub + Verb + Obj)


• Use Articles in Different context


• Not only - but also ( use it in different context with more examples)


• Whether – or ( use it in different context with more examples)


• Neither – nor ( use it in different context with more examples)


• Either – or ( use it in different context with more examples)


• Comparative Adjective : Sub + Be verb / main verb + comparative adjective + than + sub


• Superlative Model : Sub + be verb + one of the + Superlative adjective + obj / adv


• That model : sub + verb + “that” + sub + verb + adv / add “to”


• Use Cannot , do not, it is said that, it seem that (in different context with different noun / verb forms)


• Try all form of Model Verbs like (can, will, could, should, may, might, ought, would, shall)


BANANA

The first bananas to reach England could have come from the Spanish West Indies or from the Far East. The banana appears to have originated in southern Asia in prehistoric times and spread to the islands of the Pacific when immigrants carried them from the Asian mainland. They were found on all the tropical Pacific islands by the time white men first visited them. The name itself is West African. Bananas were introduced to the Western Hemisphere by Friar Tomas de Berlanga, who brought them from the Canary Islands to Hispaniola in 1516.
Soon they were growing in Mexico and thriving so well that many later visitors mistakenly thought the banana was indigenous to America. Today more than a hundred million bunches of bananas are shipped around the world every year. With their high nutritive value, bananas greatly enrich our diets. They have also enriched our language, as witness the song title “Yes, We Have No Bananas,” the political term banana republic, the tasty banana split at your local malt shoppe, the Bic Banana felt-tip marker, and the financially hard-pressed widow who promises herself that her next husband will be “a rich old man with one foot in the grave and the other foot on a banana peel.”

QUEUE

What five-letter word can be shortened to only one letter but still be pronounced correctly? The answer, of course, is queue (pronounced kyoo). It appeared in print as early as 1592 as a heraldic term for the tail of a beast, coming from the Old French coue, which in turn came from the Latin cauda, meaning “tail.” By 1748 queue had acquired a second definition: a long plait of hair hanging down from the back of the head, so called because of its resemblance to the tail of an animal (and now known as a pigtail). In 1837 the English writer Thomas Carlyle used the word the way we use it today: to describe a number of people lined up at a ticket office or checkout counter, presumably because the lineup resembles the shape of an animal’s tail.

USELESS

        In frequent use since 1650, the word useless, from the Latin usus, “to use,” and the Old English laes, “less,” was first used by William Shakespeare in “The Rape of Lucrece”:

The aged man that coffers up his gold

Is plagued with cramps, and gouts, and painful fits,

And scarce hath eyes his treasure to behold,

But like still-pining Tantalus he sits,

And useless barns the harvest of his wits;

Having no other pleasure of his gain

But torment that it cannot cure his pain.

       Notice how Shakespeare used barn as a verb, thereby turning useless into an adverb. He also makes reference to Tantalus, a character in ancient Greek mythology who revealed some of the secrets of Zeus and
was condemned to a rather unusual punishment. He was plunged into water up to his chin, while overhead dangled succulent fruits from the branches of a tree. But whenever he bent over to drink or reached up to eat some fruit, the water receded and the fruit was withdrawn. That’s why Tantalus has given us the word tantalize: to tease or torment someone by keeping just out of reach something which they ardently desire.
                                                                                         Source : 500 Years of New Words by Bill Sherk

Critical Reading

STORY OF A BIRD

March 2000

By

Alok Kumar Dubey

THE HAPPY BEGINNING

March 2000, the summer, the days used to stormy in this season, it was about 4 PM of the evening, today it seems that a hard blow of wind would come at any time and it would blow trees and houses. The clouds were gray enough that one can think like me prima facie. All family members were outside in the baramda, doing their business. I was looking to my flower plants; I planted few months ago .I was thinking that it should now flourish. Something happened suddenly what I was guessed earlier, a heavy storm came and every one rush to the roof to collect the clothes. We were about to turn to go inside the house suddenly my elder brother got an eye on the gate and saw a bird was stroked by wind. That was a very small bird and probably hit heavily by the stroke. I took her and see if she was alive, after assuring her alive, I took her in inside the house and put her on my study table. She was so charming that I fall in love with her at first sight. She was pretty enough to fall in love by anyone like me. She was injured, her wings were damaged seriously and that’s why she would not able to fly. At that time I was not known the type of that bird she was, but when I served water in a very small bowl she used her snake like tongue, I guess she was honey bird. Her
color was blue with red and green on neck a small needle like peak. I remember those day when I used to catch birds in brutal way, I hate those days to remember. The incident that shook my inner was happened to be three year back. I was studying in my room when a sparrow suddenly came in the room. I closed the room and try to catch her but she was quite smart, she sat on the height of the room so to bring her down switch on the fan but she got an accident with the fan and her neck bone was fractured. She died after sometime. I was not thought of that result and felt extremely guilty for killing that bird. I felt I have no right to take anyone’s life like this. Now I got a chance to improve that mistake I had committed once. I decided to cure that birds and look after her until she’ll be able to fly. I made a room for her in my room aside a small space leaved by books. I used to give her sugar and water solution until she is able to fly. When I go outside I closed my room so that she could not come out side and would not got any accident by coming under anyone’s foot or eaten by my pet dog Tiger. Other people in my house also look after her in my absence. She had got a soft corner in their hearts. They like watching her playing. After two days she got recovered upto some extent, was able to jump, and can fly upto some extent. When I sat outside I used to keep her with me outside on flower plants. She enjoys the pollen of flowers. Sometimes I put her on bean plant and she spends her whole day jumping in the plant. She enjoys the pollen of the bean flowers. She was so cute that my neighbors were mesmerized with her innocent beauty and took her with them especially children to play. Some people said that I was doing the work of “ punya ” a Hindi word meaning the work of kindness or divine work. I was just doing and enjoying because I love to look after her until she’ll be able to fly. I was so much in love with her that when I went outside I leave my mind with her, I always thought about her and pray for her in good health. I always hasten to reach home and saw her playing. This was first time I love so much with anyone to look after and thinking so warily and that a small bird. It was my thought to cure my mistakes that made me so humble and tenderhearted. To Love living being is like being a human in real term. God give human so much power and brain that he can look after his beautiful creation of this world of wonders.

THE UNFORTUNATE END

It passed some few good days and that unfortunate day has come, I put her in the bean plant and went to collage, after returning I took my lunch and took some nap. After few hours I came outside and looked for her in the plant could not found her. I went to roof and search for her rigorously but didn’t find her. My suspect went to Tiger because he was never napping silently before. I come down, looked around, and found her lying lifeless some distance far from Tiger. It was unexpected end of her life that I had not imagined even in dream. I was socked I told everyone in my house, everyone was socked none was expecting this. I don’t want to believe on my eyes but I had to. I took her dead body, went to Guava orchard, and buried her there. I came back to house and saw Tiger was still sleeping, it seems he had won a war. I thought he did not want to split his love to other.

I never forgot that memorable moment spent with that beloved bird.

TERRORIST

This term, from the Latin terrere, “to frighten,” was first applied to the Jacobins and others like them who organized the Reign of Terror in the wake of the French Revolution. The guillotine was the chief instrument of execution for those found guilty of plotting against the new republican government, and among its victims were Louis XVI and his Austrian wife, Marie Antoinette. The flow of blood was at its greatest from the summer of 1793 (Louis and his wife had been dispatched the previous January) until the summer of 1794, during which time an estimated forty thousand persons lost their lives.

But the popular notion that French aristocrats were the chief recipients of the guillotine blade simply is not true. In A History of the Modern World, R.R. Palmer and Joel Colton set the record straight: “The Terror showed no respect for, or interest in, the class origins of its victims. About eight per cent were nobles, but the nobles as a class were not molested unless suspected of political agitation.



Fourteen per cent of the victims were classifiable as bourgeois, mainly of the rebellious southern cities. Six per cent were clergy, while no less than seventy per cent were of the peasant and labouring classes.”



The terror struck fear in the hearts of French citizens from the English Channel to the Riviera. Butchery in the name of politics became the order of the day as one atrocity followed another. And not all victims were beheaded: at Nantes, for example, two thousand hapless souls were loaded onto barges and deliberately drowned.
                                 Source: 500 Years of new words By Bill Sherk

GRAVEYARD

      You would think this word would date back much earlier than 1761, particularly when you consider that the word grave goes back to Old English, which flourished from the sixth to the eleventh centuries after Christ. Graveclothes (the clothes in which the corpse is buried) dates backto 1535, and gravedigger to 1593, but the popularity of cemetery (from the 1400s) and burial place (from 1633) made it possible for the Englishspeaking people to get by for more than a thousand years without a single graveyard in their vocabulary — at least as far as we know.

The fancy ancient word for a cemetery or graveyard is necropolis, literally “a city of the dead.” The ancient Egyptians had special communities set aside for the preparation of corpses for burial, especially those of the royal family, who had the privilege of being mummified. The job of working in one of these places was passed down from father to son, and those who lived there were known by an Egyptian word meaning “those who carry the odour of death with them.”

In the late nineteenth century, grave robbing became a lucrative business as medical schools paid good money for corpses suitable for research. Legislation to stamp out this ghoulish practice followed on the heels of the discovery, in 1878, that the cadaver lying in the dissecting room of the Ohio Medical College was none other than John Scott Harrison, the only American to be the son of one president (William Henry Harrison) and the father of another (Benjamin Harrison).
                      Source: 500 Years of new words By Bill Sherk

DICTIONARY

           Although the term dictionarius was used by English writers as early as the thirteenth century, it described lists of Latin words and phrases. The first recorded use of dictionary in an English sentence took place in 1526, inreference to a book compiled by one Peter Bercharius in the fourteenth century: “And so Peter Bercharius in his dictionary describeth it.” In 1538 Sir Thomas Elyot published his Latin-English Dictionary — and the word dictionary, from the Latin dicere, “to say,” began appearing in book titles from then on. Most of the early dictionaries of the English language were restricted to difficult words.
The first all-inclusive dictionary of the English language was compiled by Dr. Samuel Johnson between 1747 and 1755. Although he thought of himself as a “harmless drudge,” he was not without humour, as evidenced by his definition of window: “an orifice in an edifice.” He included far more words than any lexicographer before him, but refused to include any vulgar terms.
The story goes that a pair of very proper ladies approached the great doctor at a literary tea and said, “We see, Dr. Johnson, that you do not have any naughty words in your dictionary.” To which he replied, “And I see, dear ladies, that you have been looking for them.” The greatest dictionary of all time got under way in the latter half of the nineteenth century in Oxford, England.

The first volume was released in 1884, the tenth in 1928, precisely forty-four years later. (One of the  original typesetters was still at work on it when the last volume was printed.) In 1933 it was reprinted as a twelve-volume set, and a supplementary volume was published. A second supplement, consisting of four volumes, came out between 1972 and 1986. A revised edition, running to 22,000 pages spread over twenty volumes and containing more than 615,000 words, was published in 1989. A third edition is currently in the works. In 1980, the Oxford lexicographers made a successful grab for the lucrative American dictionary market with the publication of the very first Oxford American Dictionary. Sales have been brisk, thanks in part to the blurb on the front cover: “The most authoritative paperbound dictionary.” But by a curious oversight, the word paperbound is not inthe dictionary itself.
                                   Source : 500 years of new words by Bill Sherk

Enrich Your English I



Boycott (Charles Boycott, an English land agent in Ireland)


Dahlia (developed by Anders Dahl, a Swedish botanist)


Cardigan (Earl of Cardigan, nineteenth century; a style of waistcoat that he favored)


Derrick (the name of a hangman at a London prison in the time of Shakespeare and Queen Elizabeth I)


Guy (In Britain, Guy Fawkes Day, November 5; for the Catholic conspirator, member of the Gunpowder Plot in Great Britain, 1606. Since he was held up to ridicule, and in Britain the word still means “a person of odd or grotesque appearance,” it is apparent that American English has generalized and neutralized the word.)


Lynch (Capt. William Lynch, a planter in colonial Virginia, originated lynch law in 1780)


Nicotine (Jacques Nicot introduced tobacco into France in 1560)


Ohm (unit of electrical resistance, named for nineteenth-century German physicist, Georg Simon Ohm)


Sadistic (eighteenth-century Marquis de Sade, infamous for crimes of sexual perversion)


Sandwich (eighteenth-century British nobleman, the Earl of Sandwich, who brought bread and meat together to the gambling table to provide sustenance for himself, and started the fast food industry)

HURRICANE

1555 HURRICANE

Many of the new words born during the exploration of the New World were inspired by the strange new forms of life encountered there. Hurricanes, an equatorial phenomenon unknown to Europeans, served as outstanding example of the hitherto unknown dangers that lay in wait for those unsuspecting adventurers. This word comes to us by way of the Spanish adaptation, huracan, of a Native Caribbean word for those catastrophic storms defined by the American Heritage Dictionary as follows: “a severe tropical cyclone with winds exceeding seventy-five miles per hour, originating in the tropical regions of the Atlantic Ocean or Caribbean Sea, travelling north, northwest, or northeast from its point of origin, and usually involving heavy rains. See synonyms at wind.” When you turn to wind, you discover why the American Heritage Dictionary is one of the best on the market. Not only does it give you a list of synonyms, but explanatory notes on how each synonym differs from all the others in the list. Under wind, you find wind, breeze, zephyr, blast, gust, gale, whirlwind, tornado, twister, cyclone, hurricane, typhoon and waterspout. You discover that hurricane originates in the West Indies, whereas a typhoon (from the Chinese ta feng, “big wind,” first appearing in English in 1588) applies to windstorms in the western Pacific and China Sea. The term that covers them both is cyclone: “the general term for a system of rotating wind, often hundreds of miles in diameter, that travels widely, brings driving rain and often great destruction.” This term is much newer than the other two, not appearing in print until 1848. It is based on the Greek kuklos, or “circle,” because of the circular path of the wind.

Also in 1555: bookkeeper