Group Discussion

GROUP DISCUSSION

A GD is a methodology used by an organization to gauge whether the candidate has certain personality traits and/or skills that it desires in its members. In this methodology, the group of candidates is given a topic or a situation, given a few minutes to think about the same, and then asked to discuss the it among themselves for 15-20 minutes. Freshersworld.com brings you an elaborate section for GD as you had ever seen anywhere else.

Some of the personality traits the GD is trying to gauge may include :-
Ability to work in a team
Communication skills
Reasoning ability
Leadership skills
Initiative
Assertiveness
Flexibility
Creativity
Ability to think on ones feet

WhyGDs:-

The reason why institutes put you through a Group discussion and an interview, after testing your technical and conceptual skills in an exam, is to get to know you as a person and gauge how well you will fit in their institute. The Group discussion tests how you function as a part of a team. As a manager, you will always be working in teams, as a member or as a leader. Therefore how you interact in a team becomes an important criterion for your selection. Managers have to work in a team and get best results out of teamwork. That is the reason why management institutes include GD as a component of the selection procedure.



Company'sPerspective:-

Companies conduct group discussion after the written test so as to check on your interactive skills and how good you are at communicating with other people. The GD is to check how you behave, participate and contribute in a group, how much importance do you give to the group objective as well as your own, how well do you listen to viewpoints of others and how open-minded are you in accepting views contrary to your own. The aspects which make up a GD are verbal communication, non-verbal behavior, and conformation to norms, decision-making ability and cooperation. You should try to be as true as possible to these aspects.

Why do we have GD ?

Reasons for having a GD

  • It helps you to understand a subject more deeply.
  • It improves your ability to think critically.
  • It helps in solving a particular problem.
  • It helps the group to make a particular decision.
  • It gives you the chance to hear other students' ideas.
  • It improves your listening skills.
  • It increases your confidence in speaking.
  • It can change your attitudes.

Strategies for Improving GD Skills for Tutorials & Seminars

Asking questions and joining in discussions are important skills for university study. If you find it difficult to speak or ask questions in tutorials, try the following strategies.

Observe

Attend as many seminars and tutorials as possible and notice what other students do. Ask yourself:

How do other students make critical comments?

How do they ask questions?

How do they disagree with or support arguments?

What special phrases do they use to show politeness even when they are voicing disagreement?

How do they signal to interrupt, ask a question or make a point?

Practice

Start practicing your discussion skills in an informal setting or with a small group. Start with asking questions of fellow students. Ask them about the course material. Ask for their opinions. Ask for information or ask for help.

Participate

Take every opportunity to take part in social/informal discussions as well as more structured/formal discussion. Start by making small contributions to tutorial discussions; prepare a question to ask, or agree with another speaker's remarks.


Discussion Etiquette (or minding your manners)

Do

Speak pleasantly and politely to the group.

Respect the contribution of every speaker.

Remember that a discussion is not an argument. Learn to disagree politely.

Think about your contribution before you speak. How best can you answer the question/ contribute to the topic?

Try to stick to the discussion topic. Don't introduce irrelevant information.

Be aware of your body language when you are speaking.

Agree with and acknowledge what you find interesting.

Don't

Lose your temper. A discussion is not an argument.

Don’t Shout. Use a moderate tone and medium pitch.

Use too many gestures when you speak. Gestures like finger pointing and table thumping can appear aggressive.

Dominate the discussion. Confident speakers should allow quieter students a chance to contribute.

Draw too much on personal experience or anecdote. Although some tutors encourage students to reflect on their own experience, remember not to generalise too much.

Interrupt. Wait for a speaker to finish what they are saying before you speak.

Leading a Discussion

You may be in a seminar group that requires you to lead a group discussion, or lead a discussion after an oral presentation. You can demonstrate leadership by:

introducing yourself and the members of the group

stating the purpose of the discussion

inviting quiet group members to speak

being objective

summarizing the discussion

Chairing a Group Discussion

When chairing a discussion group you must communicate in a positive way to assist the speakers in accomplishing their objective. There are at least four leadership skills you can use to influence other people positively and help your group achieve its purpose. These skills include:

introducing the topic and purpose of the discussion,

making sure all members have approximately the same time, (i.e. no one dominates the discussion by taking too much time)

thanking group members for their contribution

being objective in summarizing the group's discussion and achievements.

How to Face GD

A group discussion consists of:

Communication Skills

Knowledge and ideas regarding a given subject

Capability to co-ordinate and lead

Exchange of thoughts

Addressing the group as a whole

Thorough preparations

Communication Skills

The first aspect is one's power of expression. In a group discussion, a candidate has to talk effectively so that he is able to convince others. For convincing, one has to speak forcefully and at the same time create an impact by his knowledge of the subject. A candidate who is successful in holding the attention of the audience creates a positive impact.

It is necessary that you should be precise and clear. As a rule evaluators do not look for the wordage produced. Your knowledge on a given subject, your precision and clarity of thought are the things that are evaluated. Irrelevant talks lead you nowhere. You should speak as much as necessary, neither more nor less. Group discussions are not debating stages.

Ability to listen is also what evaluators judge. They look for your ability to react on what other participants say. Hence, it is necessary that you listen carefully to others and then react or proceed to add some more points. Your behavior in the group is also put to test to judge whether you are a loner or can work in a group.

You should be able to convey your thoughts satisfactorily and convincingly before a group of people. Confidence and level headedness in doing so is necessary. These add value to your presentation. In case you are not good at it, you might gain by joining an institute that offers specialized courses in public speaking. For instance, British Council Division's English Language Teaching Centre offers a wide range of courses like conversation skills, business communication skills, business writing, negotiation skills and presentation skills. Mostly people attend these courses to improve their communication skills. Students here are involved in activities which use communication skills and teachers provide inputs, monitor and facilitate the classes. The course at the Centre makes you confident enough to speak before people without any nervousness.

Knowledge and Ideas Regarding a Given Subject

Knowledge of the subject under discussion and clarity of ideas are important. Knowledge comes from consistent reading on various topics ranging from science and technology to politics. In-depth knowledge makes one confident and enthusiastic and this in turn, makes one sound convincing and confident.

Leadership and Coordinating Capabilities

The basic aim of a group discussion is to judge a candidate's leadership qualities. The examiner withdraws and becomes a silent spectator once the discussion starts. A candidate should display tactfulness, skill, understanding and knowledge on varied topics, enterprise, forcefulness and other leadership qualities to motivate and influence other candidates who may be almost equally competent.

Exchange of Thoughts

A group discussion is an exchange of thoughts and ideas among members of a group. These discussions are held for selecting personnel in organisations where there is a high level of competition. The number of participants in a group can vary between 8 and 15. Mostly a topic or a situation is given to group members who have to discuss it within 10 to 20 minutes.

The purpose is to get an idea about candidates in a short time and make assessments about their skills, which normally cannot be evaluated in an interview. These skills may be team membership, leadership skills, listening and articulation skills.

A note is made of your contributions to the discussion, comprehension of the main idea, the rapport you strike, patience, assertion, accommodation, amenability, etc. Body language and eye contact too are important points which are to be considered. .

Addressing the Group as a Whole

In a group discussion it is not necessary to address anyone by name. Even otherwise you may not know everyone's names. It better to address the group as a whole.

Address the person farthest from you. If he can hear you everyone else too can. Needless to add, as for the interview, attend the group discussion in formal dress. The language used should also be formal, not the language used in normal conversations. For instance, words and phrases like "yar", "chalta hai", "CP", "I dunno", etc. are out. This is not to say you should use a high sounding, pedantic language. Avoiding both, just use formal, plain and simple language. Hinglish, (mixture of Hindi and English) should be discarded.

Confidence and coolness while presenting your viewpoint are of help. See that you do not keep repeating a point. Do not use more words than necessary. Do not be superfluous. Try to be specific. Do not exaggerate.

Thorough Preparation

Start making preparations for interview and group discussions right away, without waiting till the eleventh hour, this is, if and when called for them. Then the time left may not be adequate. It is important to concentrate on subject knowledge and general awareness. Hence, the prime need for thorough preparation. Remember, the competition is very tough. Only 460 candidates make it to the final list from 2.75 lakh civil service aspirants each year.

It may so happen that you are called for interviews and group discussions from three or four organizations but are not selected by any. The reason obviously lies in your not being well-prepared.

In a group discussion you may be given a topic and asked to express your views on it. Or in a case study GD, students have to read a case study and suggest ways of tackling the problem. For this you should have a good general knowledge, need to be abreast with current affairs, should regularly read newspapers and magazines. Your group behaviour and communication skills are on test, i.e. how you convince the others and how clearly you are able to express your points of view. You should be articulate, generate ideas, not sound boring, should allow others to speak, and adopt a stand on a given subject. During the course of the GD this stand can even be changed, giving the impression that you are open to accommodate others' viewpoints.

Additional marks may be given for starting or concluding the discussion.

Points to Remember

Knowledge is strength. A candidate with good reading habits has more chances of success. In other words, sound knowledge on different topics like politics, finance, economy, science and technology is helpful.

Power to convince effectively is another quality that makes you stand out among others.

Clarity in speech and expression is yet another essential quality.

If you are not sure about the topic of discussion, it is better not to initiate. Lack of knowledge or wrong approach creates a bad impression. Instead, you might adopt the wait and watch attitude. Listen attentively to others, may be you would be able to come up with a point or two later.

A GD is a formal occasion where slang is to avoided.

A GD is not a debating stage. Participants should confine themselves to expressing their viewpoints. In the second part of the discussion candidates can exercise their choice in agreeing, disagreeing or remaining neutral.

Language use should be simple, direct and straight forward.

Don't interrupt a speaker when the session is on. Try to score by increasing your size, not by cutting others short.

Maintain rapport with fellow participants. Eye contact plays a major role. Non-verbal gestures, such as listening intently or nodding while appreciating someone's viewpoint speak of you positively.

Communicate with each and every candidate present. While speaking don't keep looking at a single member. Address the entire group in such a way that everyone feels you are speaking to him or her

GD FAQ's

What is the normal duration of a GD?
A GD is generally of 15-20 minutes duration.

How many panel members are there to evaluate?
There are usually 3-4 panel members to evaluate.

Is there time given for preparation after the topic is given and before starting the GD?
Usually some time (2-5 minutes) is given to collect one's thoughts, but there could be instances when this does not happen, so it is best not to bank on this.

Should I address the panel or the group members?
Don't ever make the mistake of addressing the panel members. The GD is between you and the other members, not the panel members. You must avoid even looking at the panel members while the GD is in progress. Just ignore their existence.

What is the seating arrangement like?
It could be semi-circular, or circular, or seating along side a rectangular table, depending upon the venue. It is best not to bother about trivial issues like this, which you have no control over.

How should I address the other group members?
If you are initiating the discussion, you could do so by collectively addressing the group as "Friends". Subsequently, you could use names (if the group has had a round of self-introduction prior to starting the discussion and you remember the names) or simply use pronouns like "he" or "she".

Suppose I have a lot to say on the topic, should I say all of it?
You would not be looked upon favourably if you kept speaking all the time and did not listen to anyone else. Contrary to the misconception, the person who talks the most is not necessarily the one who is judged the best. The quality and not the quantity of your contribution is the success factor.

Should I encourage others to speak up?
Do not directly put someone who is consistently silent on the spot by asking him/her to speak up. If someone has been trying to speak and has a good point but is cut off constantly, you may encourage him/her to continue with her point as you would like to hear her out.

Are the group members supposed to keep track of the time or will the panel keep track?
It would be good if you are conscious of the time, but not to the point of getting so distracted looking at your watch that you do not contribute to the discussion.

Are we allowed to carry a piece of paper during the GD for noting down important points?
Normally you are, but there may be instances when it is specifically forbidden to carry paper.

Is there any particular seating arrangement, which is favourable to the participants?
If participants are asked to sit in a circle or a semi circle, one position is as good as another. But if you are asked to sit on either side of a rectangular table, then choose a position as close to the centre as possible.

Should we begin the GD by appointing a leader amongst ourselves?
No. You should not. Leadership in a GD is established implicitly through one's performance in a GD.

Should we distribute the total time available to all the participants to ensure that everybody gets a chance to speak?
Since a GD is not a debate or elocution, the participants should not resort to the strategy of distributing time amongst themselves.

Can we take a definite stand in the GD and then later on during the GD, switch over to another stand?
Yes, provided you do it the right way. In a GD it is quite likely that some other participant's counter-argument convinces you to your point. If this happens, then it is best if you accept his argument and explain to the group how your previous argument was true within a narrow range, and how the new argument is applicable to a broader range. Naturally, it is safer not to make any rash statements for or against a topic before you learn the facts of the argument. Blindly taking a stand will definitely lead you to trouble. This does not mean you should sit on the fence. You may participate actively by pointing out both sides of the issue in a reasonable and logical manner.

If we do not understand the meaning of the topic, should we ask the moderator to explain it to us?
No. You cannot. Instead of displaying your ignorance in this manner, it is better to wait for some other participant to explain the meaning of the topic. So listen to the discussion carefully for the first few minutes and when you have figured out what the topic is about, start participating in the discussion.

Should we address the other participants by their names or their assigned numbers?
As far as possible, you should try and avoid names or numbers. It is better to use pronouns such as "he", "she", "you" etc. while referring to the members of the group.

Are we expected to stick to the normally accepted line of thought or can we come up with something radical?
By all means you can. It would demonstrate your creativity and originality. Just make sure it is relevant to the topic.

If I feel strongly about an issue, should I voice my feelings?
It is important to be cool and emotionally objective in a GD. If you react emotionally you are likely to lose control over yourself during the group discussion. You have to be calm and logical, not emotional in a GD.

Can I use technical terms or jargon, which is clear to me, but not to the group?
If you have to use technical terms, please do not use abbreviations. After mentioning the term in full take time out to explain to the group what it means. It is quite likely that other participants of the group have a different academic background from you, and you should make sure you are all on a level playing field.

Do I begin my participation by requesting the group's permission to do so?
It is not likely that you will get a chance to ask for such permission. It may also go against you (as appearing weak on your part).

What is the right time to enter a GD to ensure that I am heard properly?
In any GD, there are crests and troughs during the discussion. The crest is when the noise level is at its peak. The trough is when there is almost total silence. Ideally, you should enter the GD during the trough period. But in competitive GDs, the crests occur more often and troughs may not occur at all. In such cases, you could identify the stages in the GD, where ideas dear to you are being discussed and enter the GD irrespective of the noise level.

How do I participate when the noise level is too high?
You could try the following strategy - Identify the most powerful speaker in the group, and note down the points that he/she is making. The moment the noise level reduces a little, enter supporting the powerful speaker. You will have made a strong ally who will carry you through the noise.

Do I have to be cautious about other participants' feelings (on sensitive issues like religion, caste etc)?
You certainly do. Insensitivity to others displays a lack of maturity and viciousness. It will act against your favour.

Is it beneficial to be the first speaker in a group discussion?
Being the first speaker is a high risk, high return strategy. If you can make a good opening statement, which is relevant and sets the tone for the GD, it will go in your favour. If you do this well, you may automatically become the group leader. However if you bungle it up (by speaking for the sake of speaking, not really having anything pertinent to say), it will be remembered and will go against your favour.

How critical is my fluency in English to my performance?
Command over English is certainly advantageous but will not compensate for lack of good content. If your content is good, then even if your English might not be great, you must speak it out, rather than be inhibited by lack of good English. You will get credit for soundness of ideas.

How necessary is it to use examples for illustrating an idea?
Use of examples is helpful in elaborating your point, and helping others understand your idea better. But please remember to keep it short and simple because in a competitive GD nobody has the patience to listen to long, drawn out examples.

How much or for how long should I participate?
In a 20 minute GD with 10-12 participants, you should try and participate at least 4 times with each entry lasting at least 25-30 seconds. You could participate more depending on your comfort level and the need for participation.

Is it good to be humorous in a GD?
Depends on the situation. In a GD that is fairly relaxed, it may be acceptable. But in a competitive situation, where the participants are tensed up, your attempts at humour may fall flat.

Should we make an interim summary?
An interim summary is a way of directing the group mid-way through the GD. It helps the group to pick out and focus on the most important points and thus use the remaining time more effectively. However it is not necessary to make an interim summary, if the discussion is already well focused.

What do I do if someone else has already said what I wanted to say?
You have two choices:

Agree with the point made by that person and add on to it by displaying the applicability of the argument to different situations. By doing this you will have broadened the scope of the argument.

Drop the point and think of fresh points.
To avoid getting into a situation where someone else has already spoken your points, do speak up in the first 4-5 minutes of the GD. If you wait longer, it is almost inevitable that someone would have spoken your points.

Is the use of slang/colloquialism permitted?
It is best to avoid using slang.

Can I use a language other than English to drive home my point?
No. You will have to stick to English.

How is aggression taken and measured in a GD?
The moment you notice people reacting to you negatively or strongly, you may take it that you are being too aggressive. The degree of the reaction is the measure of your aggression.

What level of aggression is seen acceptable?
There is a very thin line between aggression and assertiveness. You should always aim to sound assertive and not stubborn.

Is it true that the person who speaks the most in a GD is the one who is most successful?
This is a myth. Generally the person who has a sound knowledge of the topic and is a clear thinker speaks more. This leads the students into believing that whoever speaks most is successful. But just speaking for the sake of speaking will not take you far.

Will I be quizzed about my (or others) participation in the GD?
You may be. Therefore it helps to be alert all through the GD.

Is it true that the GD is used more as an elimination technique rather than as a selection tool?
Depends on the institute. In most premier institutes it is used as a selection tool, not as an elimination technique.

What is the level of accuracy desired in the facts and figures you quote during the GD?
An error margin of 5% is acceptable.

Is motivating other people in the group to speak looked upon favourably?
Depends on how it is done. If you openly request someone to speak, you may be putting the other person in a difficult spot, and the evaluators will not look that upon favourably. It is therefore better to use other means of motivation, such as agreeing with a halting speaker, adding on to their points, implicitly supporting and giving them direction.

Does the moderator have any biases or preconceived notions about the topic?
Ideally the moderator is supposed to be unbiased and neutral. But being a human being, the moderator cannot be totally free from bias. Since this is not a factor within your control, there isn't much point losing sleep over it.

Can we expect the moderator to stop or cut short the GD much before the stipulated time is over?
This may happen if the GD becomes too noisy and if the level of discussion deteriorates abysmally.

Can I be aggressive with a lady participant?
A GD is not the place to demonstrate chivalry. Being rude to any participant (male or female) is downright unacceptable. You need not extend any special privileges to a lady.

Is it all right to ask pointed questions to other participants during a GD?
It is alright to ask questions for the purpose of clarification but not for the purpose of playing the devil's advocate and proving them wrong. By playing the devil's advocate you hamper the flow of the GD. The pointed questions unsettle the other participant and the quality of the GD deteriorates. This would reflect badly on you and will go against your favour.

Is it necessary that a group should arrive at a conclusion in the stipulated time?
Ideally a group is supposed to reach a conclusion. Normally the time constraints do not allow the group to do so.

Is an end-summary absolutely essential?
No. If the group has not reached a conclusion, then it would be good if someone puts the whole discussion into perspective by summarizing. But if there isn't sufficient time, a summary may be avoided.

Do we have to write a synopsis of the GD once it is over?
Some institutes insist on this, but it is not universal.

Is voting an acceptable method of reaching a consensus?
Certainly not. A GD is not a debate.

How should a group select a topic if asked to?
The group should brainstorm for about two minutes and narrow down the list of topics to 3-4. After this the group should prioritize them based on the comfort level and ease of discussion of the topics. This could be done by asking each participant to rank the 4 topics and the most popular choice should be taken.

Are the topics decided on the basis of the academic background of the participant?
No. Topics are usually general in nature to give a level playing field to everyone.

What do I do if one member is very stubborn and aggressive?
You could use any of the following methods.

Ignore him and address the other members of the group.

Be assertive and tell him that his argument is faulty.

Point out to him that his point is well taken and that the group must progress further by discussing the ideas presented by others.

What are the acceptable ways of interrupting somebody else, so that I may make my point?
You can interrupt in any of the following ways:

"Excuse me, but I feel that what you are saying isn't universally true ..."

"Yes, I agree with your idea, and I would like to add on to it …"

"Yes, I think you are right when you say that, but could you clarify what if …"

GD Tips

Initiation Techniques

Body of the group discussion

Summarization/ Conclusion

Initiation Techniques

Initiating a GD is a high profit-high loss strategy.

When you initiate a GD, you not only grab the opportunity to speak, you also grab the attention of the examiner and your fellow candidates.

If you can make a favourable first impression with your content and communication skills after you initiate a GD, it will help you sail through the discussion.

But if you initiate a GD and stammer/ stutter/ quote wrong facts and figures, the damage might be irreparable.

If you initiate a GD impeccably but don't speak much after that, it gives the impression that you started the GD for the sake of starting it or getting those initial kitty of points earmarked for an initiator!

When you start a GD, you are responsible for putting it into the right perspective or framework. So initiate one only if you have in-depth knowledge about the topic at hand.

Body of the group discussion

Different techniques to initiate a GD and make a good first impression:

i. Quotes
ii. Definition
iii. Question
iv. Shock statement
v. Facts, figures and statistics
vi. Short story
vii. General statement

i. Quotes

Quotes are an effective way of initiating a GD.

If the topic of a GD is: Should the Censor Board be abolished?, you could start with a quote like, 'Hidden apples are always sweet'.

For a GD topic like, Customer is King, you could quote Sam (Wall-mart) Walton's famous saying, 'There is only one boss: the customer. And he can fire everybody in the company -- from the chairman on down, simply by spending his money somewhere else.'

ii. Definition

Start a GD by defining the topic or an important term in the topic.

For example, if the topic of the GD is Advertising is a Diplomatic Way of Telling a Lie, why not start the GD by defining advertising as, 'Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services through mass media like newspapers, magazines, television or radio by an identified sponsor'?

For a topic like The Malthusian Economic Prophecy is no longer relevant, you could start by explaining the definition of the Malthusian Economic Prophecy.

iii. Question

Asking a question is an impact way of starting a GD.

It does not signify asking a question to any of the candidates in a GD so as to hamper the flow. It implies asking a question, and answering it yourself.

Any question that might hamper the flow of a GD or insult a participant or play devil's advocate must be discouraged.

Questions that promote a flow of ideas are always appreciated.

For a topic like, Should India go to war with Pakistan, you could start by asking, 'What does war bring to the people of a nation? We have had four clashes with Pakistan. The pertinent question is: what have we achieved?'

iv. Shock statement

Initiating a GD with a shocking statement is the best way to grab immediate attention and put forth your point.

If a GD topic is, The Impact of Population on the Indian Economy, you could start with, 'At the centre of the Indian capital stands a population clock that ticks away relentlessly. It tracks 33 births a minute, 2,000 an hour, 48,000 a day. Which calculates to about 12 million every year. That is roughly the size of Australia. As a current political slogan puts it, 'Nothing's impossible when 1 billion Indians work together'.'

v. Facts, figures and statistics

If you decide to initiate your GD with facts, figure and statistics, make sure to quote them accurately.

Approximation is allowed in macro level figures, but micro level figures need to be correct and accurate.

For example, you can say, approximately 70 per cent of the Indian population stays in rural areas (macro figures, approximation allowed).

But you cannot say 30 states of India instead of 28 (micro figures, no approximations).

Stating wrong facts works to your disadvantage.

For a GD topic like, China, a Rising Tiger, you could start with, 'In 1983, when China was still in its initial stages of reform and opening up, China's real use of Foreign Direct Investment only stood at $636 million. China actually utilized $60 billion of FID in 2004, which is almost 100 times that of its 1983 statistics."

vi. Short story

Use a short story in a GD topic like, Attitude is Everything.

This can be initiated with, 'A child once asked a balloon vendor, who was selling helium gas-filled balloons, whether a blue-colored balloon will go as high in the sky as a green-colored balloon. The balloon vendor told the child, it is not the color of the balloon but what is inside it that makes it go high.'

vii. General statement

Use a general statement to put the GD in proper perspective.

For example, if the topic is, Should Sonia Gandhi be the prime minister of India?, you could start by saying, 'Before jumping to conclusions like, 'Yes, Sonia Gandhi should be', or 'No, Sonia Gandhi should not be', let's first find out the qualities one needs to be a a good prime minister of India. Then we can compare these qualities with those that Mrs. Gandhi possesses. This will help us reach the conclusion in a more objective and effective manner.'

Summarization/ Conclusion

Most GD do not really have conclusions. A conclusion is where the whole group decides in favor or against the topic.

But every GD is summarized. You can summaries what the group has discussed in the GD in a nutshell.

Keep the following points in mind while summarizing a discussion:

Avoid raising new points.

Avoid stating only your viewpoint.

Avoid dwelling only on one aspect of the GD.

Keep it brief and concise.

It must incorporate all the important points that came out during the GD.

If the examiner asks you to summaries a GD, it means the GD has come to an end.

Do not add anything once the GD has been summarized.

GD Do's

Do's

Be as natural as possible. Do not try and be someone you are not. Be yourself.

A group discussion is your chance to be more vocal. The evaluator wants to hear you speak.

Take time to organize your thoughts. Think of what you are going to say.

Seek clarification if you have any doubts regarding the subject.

Don't start speaking until you have clearly understood and analyzed the subject.

Work out various strategies to help you make an entry: initiate the discussion or agree with someone else's point and then move onto express your views.

Opening the discussion is not the only way of gaining attention and recognition. If you do not give valuable insights during the discussion, all your efforts of initiating the discussion will be in vain.

Your body language says a lot about you - your gestures and mannerisms are more likely to reflect your attitude than what you say.

Language skills are important only to the effect as to how you get your points across clearly and fluently.

Be assertive not dominating; try to maintain a balanced tone in your discussion and analysis.

Don't lose your cool if anyone says anything you object to. The key is to stay objective: Don't take the discussion personally.

Always be polite: Try to avoid using extreme phrases like: `I strongly object' or `I disagree'. Instead try phrases like: `I would like to share my views on…' or `One difference between your point and mine…' or "I beg to differ with you"

Brush up on your leadership skills; motivate the other members of the team to speak (this surely does not mean that the only thing that you do in the GD is to say "let us hear what the young lady with the blue scarf has to say," or "Raghu, let us hear your views" - Essentially be subtle), and listen to their views. Be receptive to others' opinions and do not be abrasive or aggressive.

If you have a group of like-minded friends, you can have a mock group discussion where you can learn from each other through giving and receiving feedback.

Apart from the above points, the panel will also judge team members for their alertness and presence of mind, problem-solving abilities, ability to work as a team without alienating certain members, and creativity

GD Preparation

While selection tools and techniques like tests, interviews etc. provide good data about an individual, they fall short in providing real life data of how an individual would be performing in a real life situation especially a group situation. Team work being an integral part of the BPO work profile, it is important to ascertain group and inter-personal qualities of an individual. Group discussion is a useful tool to ascertain these qualities and many organizations use GDs as a selection tool along with Personal Interviews, aptitude tests etc. A GD is an activity where

Groups of 8-10 candidates are formed into a leaderless group, and are given a specific situation to analyse and discuss within a given time limit, which may vary between twenty minutes and forty-five minutes, or

They may be given a case study and asked to come out with a solution for a problem

They may be given a topic and are asked to discuss the same

1. Preparing for a Group Discussion: While GD reflects the inherent qualities of an individual, appearing for it unprepared may not augur well for you. These tips would help you prepare for GDs:

Reading: This is the first and the most crucial step in preparation. This is a never ending process and the more you read, the better you are in your thoughts. While you may read anything to everything, you must ensure that you are in good touch with current affairs, the debates and hot topics of discussion and also with the latest in the IT and ITES industry. Chances are the topics would be around these. Read both for the thoughts as well as for data. Also read multiple view points on the same topic and then create your point of view with rationale. Also create answers for counter arguments for your point of view. The electronic media also will be of good use here.

Mocks: Create an informal GD group and meet regularly to discuss and exchange feedback. This is the best way to prepare. This would give you a good idea about your thoughts and how well can you convince. Remember, it is important that you are able to express your thoughts well. The better you perform in these mocks the better would be you chances to perform on the final day. Also try to interact and participate in other GD groups. This will develop in you a skill to discuss with unknown people as well.

2. During the Group Discussion:

What do the panelists assess: Some of the qualities assessed in a GD are:

Leadership Skills - Ability to take leadership roles and be able to lead, inspire and carry the team along to help them achieve the group's objectives.

Communication Skills - Candidates will be assessed in terms of clarity of thought, expression and aptness of language. One key aspect is listening. It indicates a willingness to accommodate others views.

Interpersonal Skills - People skills are an important aspect of any job. They are reflected in the ability to interact with other members of the group in a brief situation. Emotional maturity and balance promotes good interpersonal relationships. The person has to be more people centric and less self-centered.

Persuasive Skills - The ability to analyze and persuade others to see the problem from multiple perspectives.

GD is a test of your ability to think, your analytical capabilities and your ability to make your point in a team-based environment.

These are some of the sub-skills that also get assessed with the skills mentioned above:

Clarity of thought

Group working skills (especially during a group task of case study discussion)

Conflict handling

Listening and probing skills

Knowledge about the subject and individual point of view

Ability to create a consensus

Openness and flexibility towards new ideas

Data based approach to decision making

While, it is not possible to reflect all these qualities in a short time, you would do well if you are able to show a couple or more qualities and avoid giving negative evidence on others.

GD Mistakes

Here's a list of the most common mistakes made at group discussions:

Emotional outburst

Rashmi was offended when one of the male participants in a group discussion made a statement on women generally being submissive while explaining his point of view. When Rashmi finally got an opportunity to speak, instead of focussing on the topic, she vented her anger by accusing the other candidate for being a male chauvinist and went on to defend women in general.

What Rashmi essentially did was to

• Deviate from the subject

• Treat the discussion as a forum to air her own views.

• Lose objectivity and make personal attacks.

Her behaviour would have been perceived as immature and demotivating to the rest of the team.

Quality Vs Quantity

Gautam believed that the more he talked, the more likely he was to get through the GD. So, he interrupted other people at every opportunity. He did this so often that the other candidates got together to prevent him from participating in the rest of the discussion.

• Assessment is not only on your communication skills but also on your ability to be a team player.

• Evaluation is based on quality, and not on quantity. Your contribution must be relevant.

• The mantra is "Contributing meaningfully to the team's success." Domination is frowned upon.

Egotism Showing off

Krishna was happy to have got a group discussion topic he had prepared for. So, he took pains to project his vast knowledge of the topic. Every other sentence of his contained statistical data - "20% of companies; 24.27% of parliamentarians felt that; I recently read in a Jupiter Report that..." and so on so forth. Soon, the rest of the team either laughed at him or ignored his attempts to enlighten them as they perceived that he was cooking up the data.

• Exercise restraint in anything. You will end up being frowned upon if you attempt showing-off your knowledge.

• Facts and figures need not validate all your statements.

• Its your analysis and interpretation that are equally important - not just facts and figures.

• You might be appreciated for your in-depth knowledge. But you will fail miserably in your people skills.

Such a behavior indicates how self-centered you are and highlights your inability to work in an atmosphere where different opinions are expressed.

Get noticed - But for the right reasons

Srikumar knew that everyone would compete to initiate the discussion. So as soon as the topic - "Discuss the negative effects of India joining the WTO" - was read out, he began talking. In his anxiety to be the first to start speaking, he did not hear the word "negative" in the topic. He began discussing the ways in which the country had benefited by joining WTO, only to be stopped by the evaluator, who then corrected his mistake.

• False starts are extremely expensive. They cost you your admission. It is very important to listen and understand the topic before you air your opinions.

• Spending a little time analyzing the topic may provide you with insights which others may not have thought about. Use a pen and paper to jot down your ideas.

• Listen! It gives you the time to conceptualize and present the information in a better manner.

Some mistakes are irreparable. Starting off the group discussion with a mistake is one such mistake, unless you have a great sense of humor.

Managing one's insecurities

Sumati was very nervous. She thought that some of the other candidates were exceptionally good. Thanks to her insecurity, she contributed little to the discussion. Even when she was asked to comment on a particular point, she preferred to remain silent.

• Your personality is also being evaluated. Your verbal and non verbal cues are being read.

• Remember, you are the participant in the GD; not the evaluator. So, rather than evaluating others and your performance, participate in the discussion.

• Your confidence level is being evaluated. Decent communication skills with good confidence is a must to crack the GDs.

Focus on your strengths and do not spend too much time thinking about how others are superior or inferior to you. It is easy to pick up these cues from your body language.

Knowledge is strength. A candidate with good reading habits has more chances of success. In other words, sound knowledge on different topics like politics, finance, economy, science and technology is helpful.

Power to convince effectively is another quality that makes you stand out among others.

Clarity in speech and expression is yet another essential quality.

If you are not sure about the topic of discussion, it is better not to initiate. Lack of knowledge or wrong approach creates a bad impression. Instead, you might adopt the wait and watch attitude. Listen attentively to others, may be you would be able to come up with a point or two later.

A GD is a formal occasion where slang is to avoided.

A GD is not a debating stage. Participants should confine themselves to expressing their viewpoints. In the second part of the discussion candidates can exercise their choice in agreeing, disagreeing or remaining neutral.

Language use should be simple, direct and straight forward.

Don't interrupt a speaker when the session is on. Try to score by increasing your size, not by cutting others short.

Maintain rapport with fellow participants. Eye contact plays a major role. Non-verbal gestures, such as listening intently or nodding while appreciating someone's viewpoint speak of you positively.

Communicate with each and every candidate present. While speaking don't keep looking at a single member. Address the entire group in such a way that everyone feels you are speaking to him or her.

Types of GD

GDs can be topic-based or case-based.

Topic based Gds can be classified into three types :-

1. Factual Topics
2. Controversial Topics
3. Abstract Topics

Factual topics are about practical things, which an ordinary person is aware of in his day-to-day life. Typically these are about socio-economic topics. These can be current, i.e. they may have been in the news lately, or could be unbound by time. A factual topic for discussion gives a candidate a chance to prove that he is aware of and sensitive to his environment.
E.g. The education policy of India, Tourism in India, State of the aged in the nation

Controversial topics are the ones that are argumentative in nature. They are meant to generate controversy. In GDs where these topics are given for discussion, the noise level is usually high, there may be tempers flying. The idea behind giving a topic like this is to see how much maturity the candidate is displaying by keeping his temper in check, by rationally and logically arguing his point of view without getting personal and emotional.
E.g. Reservations should be removed, Women make better managers

Abstract topics are about intangible things. These topics are not given often for discussion, but their possibility cannot be ruled out. These topics test your lateral thinking and creativity.
E.g. A is an alphabet, Twinkle twinkle little star, The number 10

Another variation is the use of a case instead of a topic.
The case study tries to simulate a real-life situation. Information about the situation will be given to you and you would be asked as a group to resolve the situation. In the case study there are no incorrect answers or perfect solutions. The objective in the case study is to get you to think about the situation from various angles.

Is India moving away from a secularist state?

Education in India - or the lack of it

What ails Indian sports?

The Age of Information

Is Philosophy just an armchair theory?

Success is all about human relations

Borderless worlds - Dream or reality?

Quality is a myth in India.

Education and success - Is there a correlation?

We don't learn from history, we repeat it

Do we need a global policeman

Indian villages - our strength or our weakness?

Agrarian Economy in India - boon or bane

if there were no armies in the world......

Indian customs - are we in a time warp?

"How green was my valley........". Is nature paying the price ?

Management Education - Is it necessary to succeed in business

The role of NGOs in economics and politics

NGOs - Do they serve peoples interests or are they pressure groups?

Death of Socialism

Role of women in development

Kids today are not what they used to be

Casteless India - A pipe dream

Should Trade Unionism be banned in India

Repeated elections - Should taxpayers pay for it?

Indian bureaucracy - foundation strengths or colonial hangovers?

In India, the whole is less than the parts - Do we lack in team spirit?

Generation X - Drivers of our future or are they our lost souls?

Do we need a cut in the defence budget?

"Dot.com" companies - Is there room for everyone?

Artificial Intelligence - Will man be ever replaced by machines?

if I were to choose my person of the millennium...

All the world is a stage....

when managers become Hamlets...

If Patel were our first Prime Minister.......

Materialism - Have we sold our souls to the Devil?

You've come a long way, baby - The rise and rise of feminist power.

Role of ethics in tobacco industry, liquor industry etc.

Should gambling be legalised in India?

Are we unfit for Democracy?

Survival tools for the new millennium

Examinations - has it killed education

Cultural Invasion through the air waves

Should doctors be tried in Consumer Courts

Abortion and Euthanasia - Is it morally right for society

Are beauty pageants necessary?

The relevance of Gandhism today

India and the WTO

Did India handle the hijack issue properly?

Is E-Commerce the best thing for India

Managerial skills learnt in the classroom can never match those learnt from experience

Democracy is hampering India progress

MBA in India is highly overrated.

Religion is a private affair and should be of no concern for the state

Decreasing defense expenditure and increasing social expenditure is the need of the hour

Is coalition politics here to stay?

Does India need a dictator?

What ails Indian sports?

Success is all about human relations

Borderless worlds - Dream or reality?

Quality is a myth in India

Will China overtake India in IT

India - the back office to the world by 2020

Does Indian IT industry need to focus on products rather than services

The BPO age - heralding a new employment revolution

The BPO revolution and its impact on the society

Education and success - Is there a correlation?

We don't learn from history, we repeat it

Do we need a global policeman?

Indian villages - our strength or our weakness?

Management Education - Is it necessary to succeed in business

Kids today are not what they used to be

Repeated elections - Who should pay for them

Indian bureaucracy - foundation strengths or colonial hangovers?

In India, the whole is less than the parts - Do we lack in team spirit?

"Dot.com" companies - Is there room for everyone?

Artificial Intelligence - Will man be ever replaced by machines?

Materialism - Have we sold our souls to the Devil?

Role of ethics in tobacco industry, liquor industry etc.

Are we unfit for Democracy?

Survival tools for the new millennium

Examinations - has it killed education

Should doctors be tried in Consumer Courts

Is E-Commerce the best thing for India

US war on Iraq-justified or not.

Role of UN in peacekeeping.

Position of Women in India compared to other nations.

Environment Management.

Is China better than India in software.

Should SONIA Gandhi be made the PM

BPOs in INDIA

Govt contribution to IT

will punch lines rule the Advt

premarital sex

is china a threat to Indian industry

India or west , which is the land of opportunities

water resources should be nationalized

"BALANCE BETWEEN PROFESSIONALISM AND FAMILY"

Effect of cinema on Youth

Education in India compared to Foreign nations

Is it necessary to ban COCO COLA in India.

What is the effect of movies on youth. is it good or bad)

Are studies more beneficial in India or in Abroad.

"UN's peace activities" and "America's war on Iraq".

"Environment-Whose Responsibility".

Is China a threat to the Indian software industry.

Role of UN in Peace keeping

War on Iraq

About Hockey being the primary game in India

Can America occupy Iraq

Cricket should be banned or not.

IS CHINA A THREAT TO INDIA

Present state of Indian Cricket team.

Love marriage/Arranged marriage.

Advantages of Co-education.

How to deal with international terrorism.

Should we pursue our policy of dialogue with Pakistan?

Is peace and non-violence outdated concepts?

A Unipolar World spells disaster for underdeveloped countries like India

Is Globalisation Really Necessary?

What shall we do about our ever-increasing Population?

Corruption is the price we pay for Democracy

Foreign Television Channels are destroying our culture

What India needs is a Dictatorship.

With media publishing and telecasting trivia, censorship is the need of the hour.

Kaun Banega Krorepati is less about knowledge but more about money and personality.

Beauty contests degrade womanhood

The rise of regional blocs threatens independent nations like India

Six billion and one bronze!

Is dependence on computers a good thing?

Should the public sector be privatised?

China and India are similar nations with contrasting ways

Is India a Soft Nation?

Value based politics is the need of the hour

Religion should not be mixed with politics

How to deal with high oil prices

Our cricketers are not to blame for match fixing

Why cant we be world players in industry as we are in software?

Multinational corporations: Are they devils in disguise?

Should there be limits on artistic freedom (the controversy on Fire).

Should there be private universities?

Does banning fashion shows and New Year parties save our culture

Engineering GD Topics

Is China a threat to the Indian software industry.

Role of UN in peacekeeping.

Position of Women in India compared to other nations.

Environment Management.

Is China better than India in software.

Govt contribution to IT

is china a threat to Indian industry

India or west , which is the land of opportunities

water resources should be nationalised

"BALANCE BETWEEN PROFESSIONALISM AND FAMILY"

Effect of cinema on Youth

Education in India compared to Foreign nations

What is the effect of movies on youth. is it good or bad)

Are studies more beneficial in India or in Abroad.

"UN's peace activities" and "America's war on Iraq".

"Environment-Whose Responsibility".

US war on iraq-justified or not.

Role of UN in Peace keeping

War on Iraq

About Hockey being the primary game in India.

Can America occupy Iraq

IS CHINA A THREAT TO INDIA

Present state of Indian Cricket team

Advantages of Co-education.

How to deal with international terrorism.

Should we pursue our policy of dialogue with Pakistan?

Is peace and non-violence outdated concepts?

A Unipolar World spells disaster for underdeveloped countries like India.

Is Globalization Really Necessary?

What shall we do about our ever-increasing Population?

Corruption is the price we pay for Democracy.

Foreign Television Channels are destroying our culture.

What India needs is a Dictatorship.

With media publishing and telecasting trivia, censorship is the need of the hour.

Kaun Banega Krorepati is less about knowledge but more about money and personality.

Beauty contests degrade womanhood

The rise of regional blocs threatens independent nations like India

Six billion and one bronze!

Is dependence on computers a good thing?

Should the public sector be privatised?

China and India are similar nations with contrasting ways

Is India a Soft Nation?

Value based politics is the need of the hour

Religion should not be mixed with politics

How to deal with high oil prices

Our cricketers are not to blame for match fixing

Why cant we be world players in industry as we are in software?

Multinational corporations: Are they devils in disguise?

Should there be limits on artistic freedom (the controversy on Fire).

Should there be private universities?

Does banning fashion shows and New Year parties save our culture?

Public sector is more a hindrance than help to promote socialism.

Economic betterment of the poorer nations is as important as disarmament to ensure lasting world peace.

From public sector to privatization as in the U.K., is the right answer for India's instant economic breakthrough.

The doctrine of "limited nuclear war" is an ill-convinced, ill- logical, irrational and extremely dangerous concept.

Some simple but effective electoral reforms will enable us to retain the present parliamentary system and ensure the preservation of democracy in India.

Nuclear war cannot be won and should not be fought.

Private enterprise and not public sector will contribute to faster and higher economic growth in India

Inflation is inevitable in our developing country.

The policy of reservation is a legacy of the British and it has done more harm than good.

For a marketing post graduate, without prior work experience working in a big marketing firm is a disadvantage when compared with working in a small firm. Discuss.

Consumerism is destroying the social fabric of Indian culture

Free market is a prerequisite for growth.

Cricket as a national obsession is a detriment to other sports.

To develop India has to empower women.

.Formulate the government's health policy to control the spread of AIDS.

Advertising is a waste of resources.

Privatization will lead to less corruption.

State is the biggest violator of human rights.

There can never be a classless society.

Beauty pageants are a marketing gimmick.

Voting rights to illiterates in India is illogical because it is widely misused.

Joint family is a blessing in disguise

Higher education should be made possible only for those who can pay for it.

Women cannot successfully combine both career and home

Women are good managers.

Executive should be allowed to form unions.

Effect of liberalization on poverty.

Indians perform better as individuals rather than in groups.

Business and ethics go hand in hand, or do they?

Developing countries should spend more on development than on defense.

Political parties have outlived their utility.

Is Swadeshi relevant for India today?

Money is required to earn more money.

Foreign trade is necessary for any country to survive

Presidential Vs Parliamentary form of government of India.

Technology: The Ism' Of The New Millennium?

Religion And Politics Should Not Mix

TRIPS Controversy And The Patent Act Amendment

Should India Sign The CTBT

State Interventions In Market Kind Or Mixed Economy

Science Is A Boon Or Bane

Is Swapping Terrorists For Hostages An Encouragement For Plane- Hijackers?

Nice Guys Finish Last

All Work And No Play Makes Jack A Dull Boy

Individual Freedom And Civil Society

Conventionalism And Modernity: The Ever going Debate

Should There Be A Restriction On Permissiveness Being propagated by The MTV Culture And Foreign Media?

Marxism And Its Future All Over The World

The Growing Menace Of Casteism And Regionalism

Presidential Form Of Government Is Needed In India

Bullet For Bullet: Is It The Right Policy?

Capitation Fees Should Be Abolished

Brain-Drain Has To Be Stopped

Business And Ethics Can't / Don't Go Together

Are women As good as Men Or Inferior?

Nothing Succeeds Like Success

The Malthusian Economic Prophecy Is No Longer Relevant

Secessionism In The North-East: Who's To Blame?

Should India Break Diplomatic Ties With Pakistan?

Age and Youth: Experience And Young Talent

East Is East & West Is Where All The Action Is': Mark Twain

Freedom Of _Expression And The State Authority

Sample Mock GD - I

Candidates are divided in groups of 8 to 10 and each group is tested by a panel of Judges. Usually topics of general interest are given by the panel to the group and the group is asked to proceed with discussion. Every candidate is supposed to express his opinion and views on the topic given. The time for discussion is approximately 20 minutes. During the discussion, the panel of Judges quietly observes the performance and behavior of the candidates and makes his own assessment.

Mock GroupDiscussion :

Most topics are taken from the current political or economic scene so if one has just kept abreast of current affairs, then he will be able to make a mark. We give below a group discussion on a common topic and give some typical responses of students. We then analyze the discussion so that readers can develop their own strategy for themselves.

JUDGE : Good morning. You can choose any topic you like or take a slip from that box. You are given one minute to think to start with the discussion. The observers will not interfere in your discussion. If no conclusion is reached, we may ask each of you to speak for a minute on the topic at the end of the discussion. The topic on the slip is "Multinationals: Bane or Boon". I suggest you should start the discussion.

Mr A : This is a good topic. I am against multinationals. We have Coke and Pepsi. Do we need them? We can manufacture our own soft drinks. Multinationals destroy the local industry and sell non-essential products.

Mr B : I agree with you. What is the fun of having Coke and Pepsi? We have our own Campa Cola.

Mr C : I think water is good enough.

Mr D : We are not here to discuss soft drinks. The topic given to us is a much larger one. First, let us define multinational companies. They are merely large companies which operate in a number of countries. There could be some Indian multinationals also. So there is nothing wrong with them. The point is whether they have a good or bad impact on the host countries. We have to discuss their business practices and find out whether they are desirable or not.

Mr E : That is a very good introduction to the topic. Multinational companies do serve an important function that they bring new products and technologies in countries which do not have them. And it is not just Coke and Pepsi. They set up power plants and build roads and bridges, which really help in the development of host countries.

Mr F : But are they all that good? We have seen that they destroy local industry. In India they just took over existing companies. They came in areas of low technology. Moreover, we have to see why they come at all. They come for earning profits and often remit more money abroad than they bring in.

Mr A : I agree with you. I am against multinationals. We can produce everything ourselves. We should be swadeshi in our approach. Why do we need multinational companies?

Mr E : We may not need multinational companies but then it also means that our companies should not do business abroad. Can we live in an isolated world? The fact is that we are moving towards becoming a global village. The world is interconnected. Then we have also seen that foreign companies bring in business practices that we are impressed with. Look at foreign banks. They are so efficient and friendly that the nationalized banks look pathetic in comparison. I think we can learn a lot from multinationals if we keep our eyes and mind open.

Mr B : Take a look at McDonald's. They are providing quality meals at affordable prices. One does not have to wait at their restaurants.

Mr C : How do you account for the fact that they take out more than they put in and thus lead to impoverishing the country?

Mr D : The fact is that every poor country needs foreign investment. Poor countries often lack resources of their own. That is why they have to invite foreign companies in. There is nothing wrong in this because then products like cars, air conditioners and so on can be made in poor countries. Often multinationals source products from different countries which helps boost their export earnings.

Mr E : We have been talking about Coke and Pepsi. It is well known that Pepsi is in the foods business also and has helped farmers in Punjab by setting up modern farms to grow potatoes and tomatoes. Modern practices have helped the people in that area.

Mr A : I still feel that multinationals are harmful for the country.

Mr D : Well, there could be negative things associated with such companies. They may not be very good in their practices. But can we do without them? I think the best way is to invite them but also impose some controls so that they follow the laws of the country and do not indulge in unfair practices.

Mr E : I think laws are applicable to everyone. Very often officials in poor countries take bribes. The fault lies not with the company which gives a bribe but the person who actually demands one. Why blame the companies for our own ills?

Mr A : What about the money they take out?

Mr D : We have had a good discussion and I think it is time to sum up. Multinationals may have good points and some bad ones too, but competition is never harmful for anyone. We cannot live in a protected economy any longer. We have been protected for many years and the results are there for everyone to see. Rather than be close about multinationals, let us invite them in selected areas so that we get foreign investment in areas which we are lacking. Laws can be strictly enforced that companies operate within limits and do not start meddling in political affairs.

Analysis :

Though Mr A started the discussion, he could not make any good points. Later, he could not give any points about why multinationals are bad. It is also a bad strategy to say at the outset whether you are for or against the topic. Remember, it is not a debate but a discussion. The first step should always be to introduce the topic without taking sides. See the way in which the discussion is proceeding and give arguments for or against. The observers are not interested in your beliefs but in what you are saying. The participation of Mr B and C is below average. A candidate must make 3-4 interventions. Their arguments are also not well thought out and add nothing to the argument. It is important to say relevant things which make an impact rather than speak for the sake of speaking. The arguments of Mr D and E are better. They seem to be aware of the role of multinational companies. Mr E's approach is better as he intervenes a number of times. He has also taken initiative in the beginning and brought order to the group. If selection has to be made from the above six candidates, the obvious choice would be Mr E and thereafter, Mr D.

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